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Glossary - G

Displaying glossary terms beginning with the letter G: 1 - 50 of 58 in total
G spot
The area of sexually sensitive tissue located on the roof of the vagina just inside the opening. Also known as the Grafenberg spot.
gain
A hearing aid's power, measured in the number of decibels that it can add to sound.
gait cycle
The cycle that the feet and legs make when walking, beginning when one heel hits the ground and ending when the same heel hits the ground again.
galactogogue
A substance that promotes breast milk production.
gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
A chemical messenger in the brain that may help decrease anxiety and promote slow-wave sleep.
ganglion
An abnormal but harmless mass of tissue, usually nerve cells.
ganglion cyst
A harmless sac of fluid on top of a joint or tendon, usually on the wrist or back of the hand.
gangrene
Death of tissue in part of the body because blood has stopped flowing there.
Related health topics: Peripheral Arterial Disease
gastric
Relating to the stomach.
Related health topics: Stomach Cancer
gastritis
Inflammation of the lining of the stomach.
Related health topics: Stomach Cancer
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
A condition in which food and acid flow back into the esophagus from the stomach, causing heartburn.
gastrointestinal
Relating to all or some of the organs of the digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus.
Related health topics: Bulimia, Hepatitis B, Pancreatic Cancer
gastrointestinal tract
The digestive tract.
Related health topics: Alcohol Withdrawal
gene
Structures on chromosomes that are passed from parent to child. The basic unit of material that passes traits from parent to child.
gene therapy
Correction of a genetic defect by replacing an abnormal gene with a normal gene.
Related health topics: Hemolytic Anemia, Sickle Cell Anemia
generic drug
A copy of a brand-name drug whose patent has expired. These drugs are less expensive than brand-name drugs.
genetic
Referring to inherited characteristics or genes.
genistein
An antioxidant chemical found in certain plants, like soybeans.
geriatric care manager
A trained medical professional who helps families who are caring for older adults.
geriatrician
A physician who specializes in the care of older patients.
Related health topics: Alzheimer's Disease
gestational diabetes mellitus
A form of diabetes that appears during pregnancy.
Related health topics: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
giant cell arteritis
Inflammation and damage to blood vessels supplying blood to the head and neck.
gingiva
Another term for gums: a form of oral tissue that covers the roots of teeth and surrounding bone.
gingivitis
Inflammation of the gums.
gland
Any organ or tissue that secretes fluids, such as hormones, for use elsewhere in the body or as waste.
glans penis
The head of the penis.
glaucoma
A condition in which the pressure inside the eye is too high, causing eye damage.
Related health topics: Marfan's Syndrome, Retinopathy
Gleason score
In men with prostate cancer, the Gleason score provides a rough estimate of how fast the cancer is growing.
glenohumeral joint
A shoulder joint that connects the ball of the humerus to the glenoid.
glenoid
The socket of the scapula that connects to the humerus at the shoulder.
glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
The rate at which the kidneys filter excess water and other wastes. A test by the same name is used to determine how well the kidneys are functioning.
glomeruli
Tiny clusters of capillaries in the kidneys that filter waste products from the blood.
glucagon
A hormone produced in the pancreas that raises blood sugar levels.
glucocorticoids
Steroid hormones released by the adrenal gland when there seems to be a threat, and the stress response is triggered.
glucose
A simple sugar that is the body's main source of energy.
glucose intolerance
Blood sugar levels that are higher than normal, but not yet high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes.
glutamate
A chemical messenger in the brain that may play a role in mood disorders and schizophrenia.
glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)
A protein found in beta cells, the cells that create insulin.
glycemic index
A ranking of foods according to how quickly and how much they raise blood sugar.
glycemic load
A ranking of how much a typical serving of a particular food will raise blood sugar.
glycogen
The body's fuel reserves. This substance, stored primarily in the liver and muscles, is later converted into glucose to provide cells with energy.
glycohemoglobin (HbA1c) test
A blood test that reflects average blood sugar levels over the preceding two to three months by measuring the amount of glucose adhering to hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells. The product formed by the attachment of glucose to hemoglobin is known as hemoglobin A1c, or HbA1c.
glycosylated hemoglobin test
A test for a person with diabetes that shows how well blood sugar levels are being controlled.
GnRH antagonists
Drugs used to treat prostate cancer by blocking the release of luteinizing hormone that do not cause a temporary surge in testosterone.
goblet cells
Cells that produce mucus that line the gastrointestinal tract and lungs.
goiter
An enlarged thyroid gland that creates a lump in the neck.
gonioscopy
A test used to detect glaucoma that examines the area where fluid drains out of the eye.
gout
A form of arthritis that occurs when uric acid builds up in the joints; The big toe, knee, and ankle joints are most often affected.
Related health topics: Tendonitis
graft
Transplanting tissue from one part of the body to another.
Related health topics: Coronary Artery Disease
gram (g)
A metric unit of weight equivalent to one-thousandth of a kilogram.